Atrial & Ventricular Pressure
Blood pressure, which is regulated by the cardiovascular system, is a widely used parameter in cardiovascular assessment. Atrial pressure is the pressure which the blood exerts on the atrial walls while ventricular pressure is the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the ventricles of the heart. Measuring left or right ventricular pressure (LVP, RVP) allows for a number of additional parameters to be calculated relating to cardiac performance, for example: maximal rate of pressure increase (dP/dt max), and end-systolic pressure (Pes).
Accurate detection of blood pressure is very important in research applications requiring an indication of cardiac function. PowerLab data acquisition systems integrate with a variety of "fluid-filled" and solid-state pressure transducers for recording atrial and ventricular pressure. Fluid-filled transducers are comprised of a liquid-filled line and transmit pressure from the region of interest back to an external pressure sensor. Transducers can be connected to the PowerLab unit via an appropriate Bridge Amplifier.
For researchers requiring reliable and high-fidelity data reproduction, the Millar Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters are recommended. These catheters feature a solid-state pressure sensor, with a high degree of frequency response (up to 10 kHz), that is embedded at the tip of the catheter. Pressure changes are thereby measured directly at the source, eliminating any signal attenuation or movement artifacts. ADInstruments supply the entire range of Millar catheters for research and for ANIMAL USE ONLY. The catheters may be purchased separately or as part of the Mikro-Tip Blood Pressure Foundation System.
Whether the intended application is simply for monitoring vital function during surgery and anaesthesia, or for specific models of cardiac or peripheral arterial disease – ADInstruments blood pressure systems and software can be tailored to suit.
Related areas of interest include:
- Langendorff Heart and Working Heart pages - monitoring pressures in the isolated perfused heart
- Ventricular Pressure-Volume page - monitoring ventricular function with the Millar Mikro-Tip Pressure-Volume System
- Radnoti Isolated Perfused Heart technique note
- Intraventricular Pressure Measurement in a Langendorff Preparation technique note
The LabChart Advantage:
(may require additional Modules and Extensions)
- LabChart data files can be marked with events using the Comments feature
- Blood pressure parameters such as heart rate, systole (maximum) and diastole (minimum), and mean blood pressure can be recorded and displayed in real-time using Cyclic Measurements, Arithmetic and the Data Pad
- The Units Conversion feature can be used to convert signals into relevant units e.g. mmHg
- Macros can automate many tedious and repetitive analysis tasks
- Automated extraction of data from recordings using online Timed Add to Data Pad or offline using Multiple Add to Data Pad
- The LabChart Blood Pressure Module enables beat-by-beat or signal-averaged analyses of arterial and ventricular waveforms.
- The LabChart Ventricular Pressure extension (Mac) is used to determine the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) from the pressure waveform
- Extracted parameters in the Data Pad or BP Table View can be easily exported for further analysis, e.g in Excel or Matlab
LabChart software (for Windows and Macintosh) together with a PowerLab data acquisition system offers up to 32 channels of real-time data acquisition, data integrity, easy selection of hardware settings, powerful online and offline analysis, procedure automation, seamless extraction of experimental data and flexible display options. Additional acquisition and analysisfunctionality is provided with the use of specialized LabChart Extensions and LabChart Modules. Modules are available as part of LabChart Pro while Extensions are free for download from the website for existing LabChart users.
Blood Pressure Module
The Blood Pressure Module (Windows) automatically detects, analyzes and reports cardiovascular parameters from arterial or ventricular pressure signals.
The Settings dialog allows the user to select arterial or ventricular pressure for analysis and the Classifier View allows for easy selection of pressure waveforms for further analyses. Pressure signals with unusual cycle height and duration can be easily excluded using the data selection tool within the Classifier View.
The Analysis View displays pressure cycles as beat-by-beat or as the average of a specified number of cycles. The calculated parameters are logged in the Table View for easy exporting.
Features and benefits include:
- Suitable for analysis of pressure signals from humans as well as large and small animals
- Pressure signals can be analyzed in real time during acquisition
- The BP Classifier simplifies detection and exclusion of atypical waveforms
- Parameters can be displayed as continuous data on separate channels
- Values are logged to the Table View
- Averages any number of pressure waveforms
Calculated ventricular parameters include:
- Maximum Pressure
- Maximum dP/dt
- Isovolumetric relaxation time constant (tau)
- linear fit (IRP Average dP/dt)
- exponential fit
- Minimum Pressure
- Minimum dP/dt
- Mean Pressure
- End Diastolic Pressure (EDP)
- Maximum-Minimum Pressure
- Contractility Index
- Systolic, Diastolic, Cycle Durations
- Pressure Time Index
- Heart Rate
GLP and 21 CFR Part 11
For those researchers working within a laboratory requiring GLP and 21 CFR Part 11 compliance, the GLP Client and GLP Server are available for use with LabChart (Windows only) and PowerLab data acquisition systems. For more information, visit the Good Laboratory Practice application page or contact your nearest ADInstruments representative.
PowerLab Data Acquisition Systems
The PowerLab is a high-performance data acquisition unit capable of recording at speeds of up to 400,000 samples per second continuously to disk (aggregate). PowerLab units are compatible with instruments, signal conditioners and transducers supplied by ADInstruments, as well as many other third-party companies. In addition to standard single-ended BNC inputs, 4 differential Pod ports are also available for direct connection of Pod signal conditioners and appropriate transducers. Research PowerLab units include:
- PL3504 PowerLab 4/35 - 4 Channels
- PL3508 PowerLab 8/35 – 8 Channels
- PL3516 PowerLab 16/35 – 16 Channels
Mikro-Tip Blood Pressure System
- PL3508B35 Mikro-Tip BP Foundation System is a system for measuring cardiovascular pressures in small animals (i.e. mouse) through to large animals (i.e. sheep) using Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters (purchased separately) .
- Components include:
Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters and fluid-filled blood pressure transducers can connect to PowerLab data acquisition systems via our software-controlled bridge amplifiers including:
- FE221 Bridge Amp: Amplifier for connection of a single transducer
- FE224 Quad Bridge Amp: Connects up to 4 transducers
- FE228 Octal Bridge Amp: Connects up to 8 transducers
BP Amplifier (Human use)
- FE117 BP (Blood Pressure) Amp: An electrically isolated unit that is approved for invasive pressure recordings in humans when used with a suitable sterile transducer. Suitable for use with the MLT0670 Disposable BP Transducer.
Transducers and Accessories
Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters
ADInstruments offers the full line of Millar Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters ranging from 0.8F (for small animals) through to 7F (for large animals). These catheters are for use ONLY in animal research. Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheters may be interfaced to a PowerLab through ADInstruments Bridge Amplifiers (using either an AEC-10C Catheter Interface Cable (Viking) or AEC-10D Catheter Interface Cable (Low-profile).
- SPR-1000 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (1F Polyimide) - Animal use only
- SPR-671 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (1.1F nylon) - Animal use only
- SPR-407 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (1.5F Nylon) - Animal use only
- SPR-320 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (2F Polyurethane) - Animal use only
- SPR-882 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (2.2F) - Animal use only
- SPR-524 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (2.3F Nylon - non repairable)
- SPR-721 Mikro-Tip Dual Pressure Catheter (2.5F Polyurethane) - Animal use
- SPR-340 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (4F Polyurethane/Woven Dacron) - product has been discontinued
- SPR-350 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (5F Polyurethane/Woven Dacron)
- MPR-500 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (5F Polyurethane) – Animal use only
- SPR-360 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (6F Polyurethane/Woven Dacron) - product has been discontinued
- SPR-370 Mikro-Tip Pressure Catheter (7F Polyurethane/Woven Dacron) - product has been discontinued
Fluid-filled Pressure Transducers
Intravascular blood pressure may be recorded using fluid-filled catheters (typically made from polyethylene tubing) attached to any of the following transducers:
- MLT844 Physiological Pressure Transducer: Recommended for most animal studies. Suitable for pressures ranging from -20 to +300 mmHg. Includes disposable clip-on domes and a 4 pin to 8 pin DIN cable to connect to any ADInstruments Bridge Amplifier.
- MLT0699 Disposable BP Transducer (no stopcock): A disposable transducer suitable for arterial and venous pressures ranging from -50 to +300 mmHg. Requires MLAC06 Adapter Cable for connection to any ADInstruments Bridge Amplifier. Suitable for animal use ONLY.
- MLT0670 Disposable BP Transducer (stopcock): A disposable transducer suitable for pressures ranging from -50 to +300 mmHg. Connects to the BP Amp using an MLAC05 Adapter Cable and to the Bridge Amps using the MLAC06 Adapter Cable. Can be used in humans (single use only) or animals. Note: The MLT0670 is supplied in sterile packaging, however ADInstruments does not guarantee the integrity of the packaging or sterility. The MLT0670 will need to be gas sterilized prior to use with human subjects.
- MLT1199 BP Transducer/Cable Kit: This kit includes a MLT0699 Disposable BP Transducer (no stopcock) and a MLAC06 Adapter Cable for connection to any ADInstruments Bridge Amps. The individual components may be ordered separately. The MLT0699 Disposable Blood Pressure Transducer is designed for measuring arterial and venous blood pressure. For animal use ONLY.
- MLT0380/D Reusable BP Transducer (large animal): A reusable blood pressure transducer that uses an extravascular sensor system to measure blood pressure. Operating range of -80 to +380 mmHg. Suitable for measurements of arterial and venous blood pressure in large animals. Connects directly to any ADInstruments Bridge Amplifier. For animal use ONLY.
Bridge Amplifier Catheter Interface Cables
- AEC-10C Catheter Interface Cable Viking to DIN 8 (10 ft)
- AEC-10D Catheter Interface Cable Low-profile to DIN 8 (10 ft)
- MLA1052 Pressure Gauge For use with conventional fluid-filled pressure transducers and Millar Mikro-Tip pressure catheters
Other Fluid-filled Transducer Accessories
- (2009) Atrial natriuretic peptide increases inflammation, infarct size, and mortality after experimental coronary occlusion American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 296: H655H661
- (2009) Ablation of Ventricular Myosin Regulatory Light Chain Phosphorylation in Mice Causes Cardiac Dysfunction in Situ and Affects Neighboring Myofilament Protein Phosphorylation Journal of Biological Chemistry, 284: 50975106
- (2009) N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline prevents cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by galectin-3, a mammalian adhesion/growth-regulatory lectin American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 296: H404-H412