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Content

Biology with Lt

This collection introduces a variety of concepts fundamental for biology and biochemistry, including enzyme action, spectrophotometry, microscopy, photosynthesis, and pH.

Click on a lesson name for a synopsis and equipment list or scroll down to see all hardware,
including pre-made systems and kits for your subject area.

+Acid Rain

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® pH Sensor to measure changes in pH when CO2 is dissolved in water. In the second lab activity, students will measure changes in pH when H2SO4 is dissolved in various water samples, including distilled, fresh water, salt water, and a buffer. As an optional extension, students may investigate how dissolved H2SO4 affects the pH of hard and soft water.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® pH Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® pH Sensor

The Go Direct pH Sensor is a general-purpose pH sensor used to monitor pH of aqueous solutions.

×

+Animal Behavior

In this lab, students will observe the general behavioral characteristics of woodlice (Porcellio) and determine whether Porcellio perceive and react to certain environmental changes. They will also learn about the physical sex differences present in fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) and observe their courtship and mating rituals as an example of a strict behavioral pattern.

+Aquatic Photosynthesis

In this lab, students will use the Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe to measure the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in water containing an aquatic moss. These values are used to determine whether aquatic plants undergo photosynthesis or cellular respiration under various conditions of light (darkness, full spectrum, blue, and red light).

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe

The Go Direct Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe makes it easy to measure dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and atmospheric pressure.

×

+Cellular Respiration

In this lab students will use a Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor to investigate whether germinating and non-germinating peas respire. In the second lab activity, students will determine whether temperature affects the rate of respiration. As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on cellular respiration.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor

The Go Direct CO2 Gas Sensor measures gaseous carbon dioxide concentration levels, air temperature, and relative humidity.

×

+Diffusion through Membranes

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® Conductivity Probe to measure the diffusion rate of salt in solution. They will determine how changes in the concentration gradient, and the presence of other molecules, affect the diffusion rate of salt across a membrane. As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on diffusion.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe

The Go Direct Conductivity Probe determines the ionic content of an aqueous solution by measuring its electrical conductivity.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×

+Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

In this lab, students will investigate how the concentrations of enzyme and substrate influence the reaction rate of catalase. Students will use a Go Direct® O2 Gas Sensor to measure the concentration of oxygen gas formed as hydrogen peroxide is broken down. As an optional extension, students choose one of three parameters and investigate how their chosen variable affects reaction rate.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® O2 Gas Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® O2 Gas Sensor

The Go Direct O2 Gas Sensor measures gaseous oxygen concentration levels and air temperature.

×
Go Direct® pH Sensor
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® pH Sensor

The Go Direct pH Sensor is a general-purpose pH sensor used to monitor pH of aqueous solutions.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×

+Interdependence of Plants and Animals

In this lab, students will investigate how O2 and CO2 are exchanged among plants, snails, and the water in which both exist. To test this, students will use a Go Direct® pH Sensor and a Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe to detect O2 and CO2 levels in pond water containing snails, Elodea, or a combination of the two, over a three-day period. Measurements are taken in both light and dark conditions.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe

The Go Direct Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe makes it easy to measure dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and atmospheric pressure.

×
Go Direct® pH Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® pH Sensor

The Go Direct pH Sensor is a general-purpose pH sensor used to monitor pH of aqueous solutions.

×

+Limitations on Cell Size

In this lab, students will use agar cubes as cell models to investigate how altering surface area while maintaining constant volume affects the rate of material exchange with the environment. They will use a Go Direct® Conductivity Probe to measure solution conductivity, which is proportional to the ion concentration in the solution.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe

The Go Direct Conductivity Probe determines the ionic content of an aqueous solution by measuring its electrical conductivity.

×

+Metabolization of Sugars by Yeast

In this lab, students will use the Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor to determine how the respiration rate of yeast changes with sucrose concentration, and whether yeast are capable of metabolizing a variety of sugars. The four sugars to be tested are sucrose (table sugar), glucose (blood sugar), fructose (fruit sugar), and lactose (milk sugar). As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on cellular respiration.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor

The Go Direct CO2 Gas Sensor measures gaseous carbon dioxide concentration levels, air temperature, and relative humidity.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

×

+Population Genetics and Evolution

In this lab, students will determine how specific mechanisms of evolution, and selective pressures such as disease, affect allele and genotype frequencies in a population.

+The Visible Spectra of Plant Pigments

In this lab, students will extract pigments from spinach and carrots and measure their visible absorbance spectra with the Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer. They will also measure the absorbance of water samples dyed with blue and yellow food coloring, which will provide an analogy for the absorbance of the plant pigment extracts.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

×

+Transpiration

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® Gas Pressure Sensor to ascertain the transpiration rates of woody-stemmed plants under control and experimental conditions. Students will investigate how altering an environmental variable (light, humidity, temperature, or air movement) impacts the rate of transpiration for their species of plant. In the extension activity, students will use a compound microscope to complete stomatal counts on the leaves of different plant species, and relate the counts to the plants’ environments.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Gas Pressure Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® Gas Pressure Sensor

The Go Direct Gas Pressure Sensor measures the absolute pressure of a gas.

×

+Bacterial Transformation

In this lab, students will use the pGLO Bacterial Transformation Kit to genetically transform Esherichia coli (E. coli), so that the bacteria incorporate the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and fluoresce when exposed to arabinose and ultraviolet (UV) or blue light.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

×

+Biological Membranes

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer to determine the degree of membrane damage caused in beets after exposure to various solvents and environmental conditions (temperature, alcohols, detergent, and pH).

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

×

+Ecology and Biodiversity

In this lab, students will sample and assess biodiversity from different ecosystems. In the first activity, students will count and identify organisms from two different ecosystems in order to carry out an alpha, beta, and gamma assessment of these ecosystems. You can choose if you want students to examine pond water, or to collect data in the field for this activity. In the second activity, students will examine species evenness, calculate Shannon equitability values, and examine how diversity changes over time.

+Genetics of Drosophila

In this lab, students will use wild-type and mutant strains of fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) to demonstrate basic genetic principles. Students will be given examples of monohybrid, dihybrid, and sex-linked crosses. The offspring (F1 generation) of the first cross will breed to produce the F2 generation. Students will examine the traits of each generation. They will use Punnett squares to draw conclusions about what sort of cross has occurred and calculate chi-square statistics to test their null (H0) and alternative (H1) hypotheses.

+Introduction to Cells

In this lab, students will investigate the defining characteristics of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Students will use a compound microscope to observe slides of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, some of which they prepare themselves using wet mount techniques. Throughout the lab, students will compare and contrast the size of, and structures within, each cell and consider how structure influences cell function. Students will end the lab classifying cells from “mystery organisms” as bacteria, protist, plant, or animal based on what they’ve learned. 

+Introduction to Microscopy

In this lab, students will learn how to safely use a compound microscope to observe both inanimate objects and more complex biological specimens. Students will also practice how to manipulate the microscope to obtain high-quality images, as well as to accurately determine the specimen's size. The extension activity teaches students how to prepare and observe a wet mount.

+Mitosis and Meiosis

Distance Learning Lab: In this lab, students will draw each stage in the processes of mitosis and meiosis, and explore sources of genetic variability and errors in cell division. They will also examine histological slides, and compare and contrast the processes of mitosis and meiosis. Please note that this content is not based on a Vernier student experiment.

Lab: In this lab, students will investigate different ways that cells divide, and find out what happens when errors occur during these complex processes. Students will examine mitosis using both plant and animal cells, model the phases of meiosis with clay, observe meiosis in a lily anther, and learn about the sources of genetic variation and potential errors during meiosis.

+Osmosis

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® Conductivity Probe to measure changes in the conductivity of a variety of salt solutions containing potato samples. From these measurements, the relative tonicities of the salt solutions compared to the potato samples can be determined. In addition, students will measure how the weights of the potato samples change, and relate this to the conductivity data. In the second activity, students will examine the responses of Elodea cells to solutions of varying tonicity.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe

The Go Direct Conductivity Probe determines the ionic content of an aqueous solution by measuring its electrical conductivity.

×

+Photosynthesis

In this lab, students will use a Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer to determine the photosynthetic activity of blended spinach leaves. They will exclude light from one spinach sample and boil another sample to measure the effects of darkness and heat on the photosynthetic rate. They will then use atrazine to observe how inhibitors affect photosynthesis. As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on photosynthesis.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

×

+Population Dynamics

In this lab, a yeast population will be given nutrients and placed in a closed environment. Organic materials will not enter or leave the environment, but inorganic gases may be exchanged. To monitor population growth, students will measure the turbidity of the solution with a Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer and perform yeast cell counts using a microscope. As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on population dynamics.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×

+Turnip Peroxidase

In this lab, students will use the SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer to investigate how enzyme and substrate concentrations affect the rate of peroxidase-catalyzed reactions and determine Vmax, ½ Vmax, and Km using a Lineweaver–Burk plot. As an optional extension, students may complete an inquiry-based activity on peroxidase activity.

Vernier Go Direct® Sensors required for this lesson

Go Direct® pH Sensor
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® pH Sensor

The Go Direct pH Sensor is a general-purpose pH sensor used to monitor pH of aqueous solutions.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×
Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
Optional Extension - See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×

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Create, customize and deliver your own interactive content that students can access anywhere.

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Vernier Go Direct® Sensors

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Go Direct® O2 Gas Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® O2 Gas Sensor

The Go Direct O2 Gas Sensor measures gaseous oxygen concentration levels and air temperature.

Required for:

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity

×
Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer
See Details

Go Direct® SpectroVis® Plus Spectrophotometer

The Go Direct SpectroVis Plus Spectrophotometer quickly measures a full wavelength spectrum. It is able to measure both Absorbance over Wavelength and Absorbance over Time.

Required for:

Beer’s Law

Biological Membranes

Determining an Equilibrium Constant

Photosynthesis

Population Dynamics

Rate Law Determination

Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin

The Visible Spectra of Plant Pigments

Turnip Peroxidase

×
Go Direct® Conductivity Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Conductivity Probe

The Go Direct Conductivity Probe determines the ionic content of an aqueous solution by measuring its electrical conductivity.

Required for:

Conductimetric Titration and Gravimetric Determination of a Precipitate

Diffusion through Membranes

Limitations on Cell Size

Osmosis

Properties of Solutions: Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes

×
Go Direct® Gas Pressure Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® Gas Pressure Sensor

The Go Direct Gas Pressure Sensor measures the absolute pressure of a gas.

Required for:

Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law

Molar Volume of a Gas

Transpiration

×
Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe

The Go Direct Optical Dissolved Oxygen Probe makes it easy to measure dissolved oxygen concentration, water temperature, and atmospheric pressure.

Required for:

Aquatic Photosynthesis

Interdependence of Plants and Animals

×
Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® CO2 Gas Sensor

The Go Direct CO2 Gas Sensor measures gaseous carbon dioxide concentration levels, air temperature, and relative humidity.

Required for:

Cellular Respiration

Metabolization of Sugars by Yeast

×
Go Direct® pH Sensor
See Details

Go Direct® pH Sensor

The Go Direct pH Sensor is a general-purpose pH sensor used to monitor pH of aqueous solutions.

Required for:

Acid Rain

Acid-Base Titration

Determining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide

Dissociation Constants

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity - Extension

Identifying an Unknown Diprotic Acid

Interdependence of Plants and Animals

Standardizing a Solution

Turnip Peroxidase - Extension

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

×
Go Direct® Temperature Probe
See Details

Go Direct® Temperature Probe

The Go Direct Temperature Probe is a rugged, general-purpose sensor that students can use to monitor temperature.

Optional equipment
The Go Direct® Temperature Probe is optional as a thermometer can be used in its place.

Required for:

Bacterial Transformation

Biological Membranes

Boyle’s Law and Charles’ Law

Diffusion through Membranes - Extension

Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity - Extension

Evaporation and Intermolecular Attractions

Measuring and Predicting Heats of Reaction

Metabolization of Sugars by Yeast

Molar Volume of a Gas

Population Dynamics - Extension

Temperature and State Changes

Turnip Peroxidase - Extension

Supporting Students at Varying Skill Levels

As with all labs in Lt, content can be easily adapted to meet your course requirements. Many of the biology labs include guided inquiry extensions that allow students to choose and investigate a research question and complete a built-in lab report. These extensions increase academic rigor and promote lab skills, often required in Majors courses, but can be quickly removed to accommodate courses without these requirements, such as in Non-Majors courses or where lab time is limited.

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