Single-segment PV catheters use a single pair of excitation electrodes with the positive electrode located at the proximal end of the measurement area and the negative electrode located at the distal end of the measurement area to generate an electrical field in the heart, and a single pair of sensing electrodes (also known as a segment) located in between this pair of excitation electrodes to measure conductance and generate a volume signal. Single-segment PV catheters are primarily used in animals with smaller heart sizes such as rodents.
Multi-segment PV catheters utilize a primary and secondary pair of excitation electrodes with opposite polarities located at the proximal and distal ends of the measurement area to generate a larger and more uniform electrical field in the heart. To measure conductance and generate the volume signal, up to seven sensing electrode segments (pairs) are located between both pairs of excitation electrodes, and the segments' signals are summed to generate a total volume signal over the length of the catheter. Multi-segment PV catheters are primarily used in animals with larger heart sizes such as sheep or swine.
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