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Lt

Course access via the web - in class,
in the lab and at home

Step by step student lab protocols

Basic concepts & analysis focus

Curriculum based modules

 
Lt LabStation

Course access in lab setting only

Step by step student
lab protocols

Basic concepts & analysis focus

Curriculum based modules

 
LabChart
LabChart

Authentic lab-based data
recording experience

Advanced experimental protocols

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PV Loop and Spike Sorting

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Content

Animal Physiology with LabTutor

Using LabTutor, zoology and physiology students can investigate basic and applied concepts in neuro- and muscle physiology. Courses are designed with common undergraduate insect, annelid, amphibian and mammalian preparations.

  • A LabTutor page showing the preperation of a cockroach leg for use in a sensory nerve spine experiment

    Stimulate cockroach sensory nerve spines
  • A LabTutor page showing the analysis of earthworm action potentials

    Analyze conduction velocities of earthworm action potentials
  • A LabTutor page showing the equipment setup for a cricket respiratory experiment

    Measure cricket respiratory quotient
  • A LabTutor page showing the analysis of the twitch force of a frog muscle

    Calculate the twitch force of frog muscle

Click on a lesson name for a synopsis and equipment list or scroll down to see all hardware,
including pre-made systems and kits for your subject area.

+Airways Resistance

Investigate responses of airways smooth muscle to inflammatory mediators, neurotransmitters, and anti-asthma drugs. Utilize a robust smooth muscle preparation mounted in an organ bath to measure smooth muscle contraction with a force transducer.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Chick Biventer Cervicis

Using an organ bath preparation of chick biventer cervicis skeletal muscle, set up and calibrate a force transducer. Observe the effect of nerve stimulation on the preparation and then the pharmacological influence of acetylcholine, tubocurarine, potassium and suxamethonium.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Mammalian Atria

Remove and set-up the spontaneously beating atria from a guinea pig in an organ bath. Administer a variety of drugs and stimuli then record the responses to the frequency and strength of muscle contraction.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Mammalian Blood Pressure - Drug Effects

Investigate the actions of various pharmacological agents on the arterial blood pressure in a small mammal (rabbit).

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Mammalian Diaphragm

Examine the influence of anticholinesterase drugs on transmission of nerve signals at the neuromuscular junction. Subsequently apply these discoveries to understand the medical management of the neurological disorder, myasthenia gravis.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Heart

Use a Langendorff apparatus to explore the effects of drugs on an isolated rabbit heart. Observe a spontaneously beating heart which is perfused via its coronary arteries with oxygenated physiological saline. Investigate the effects of various neurotransmitters and drugs on the heart.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Jejunum

Examine the role of the sympathetic nervous system in regulating gut motility by administering both stimulation and drugs (norepinephrine and guanethidine) on the isolated jejunum preparation. Use the knowledge gained to understand why some people get an upset stomach when they are nervous.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Uterus

Study the action of stimulatory agonists, such as oxytocin, on β2-adrenoreceptors in an isolated uterus of a rat or guinea pig.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Stimulated Ileum

Use the guinea pig ileum preparation to explore how gut motility is controlled. Record baseline tissue contractions, then examine the response to electrical stimulation. Administer various drugs and observe their effects on evoked muscle contraction.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Stimulated Rat Vas Deferens

Using an organ bath preparation of the isolated rat vas deferens, set up and calibrate a force transducer. Study the effect of electrical stimulation, and how this response is altered in the presence of a range of drugs, including a-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Toad Rectus Abdominis

Use the toad rectus abdominus to study the muscle relaxant or contractant properties of acetylcholine, suxamethonium and tubocurarine. Create dose-response curves for each drug and determine how tubocurarine influences the action of suxamethonium.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Unstimulated Ileum

Investigate how neurotransmitters and hormones control gut motility. Examine the response of unstimulated guinea pig ileum to acetylcholine, histamine, antagonists of these, and a calcium channel blocker.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Unstimulated Rat Vas Deferens

Utilize the isolated rat vas deferens to study the role of sympathetic neurotransmission in smooth muscle contraction. Set up an organ bath and measure tissue tension using a force transducer. Create dose-response curves and calculate the EC50 for several drugs.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Vascular Resistance

Perfuse the isolated hind limb of a rat and use pressure changes to measure vascular resistance. Explore the effect of a range of drugs on vascular resistance.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Vascular Smooth Muscle

Use arterial rings from a pig coronary artery to investigate how autonomic neurotransmitters and endothelial factors affect vascular smooth muscle.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Cockroach Sensory Nerve

Stimulate cockroach sensory nerve spines and record evoked action potentials. Compare spontaneous and evoked action potentials. Assess the influence of the angle of deflection on action potential size and frequency. Demonstrate adaptation of sensory neurons during prolonged stimulation.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Cockroach Ventral Nerve Cord

Record extracellular action potentials from the ventral nerve cord of a large cockroach. Apply various stimuli to the cerci and observe the electrical response. Measure the travel time of an action potential and calculate nerve conduction velocity.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Earthworm Action Potentials

Obtain extracellular recordings of action potentials from an anesthetized earthworm (Lumbricus spp). Complete five exercises to examine and demonstrate threshold potential, recruitment, all-or-none response, refractory period, bidirectionality of impulse and conduction velocity of the nerve.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Frog Nerve

Construct and calibrate a nerve bath setup in order to measure compound action potentials from an isolated frog sciatic nerve. Explore basic physiological properties of nerves such as threshold, refractory period and conduction velocity.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Frog Neuromuscular Junction

Mount a dissected frog gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve to investigate the physiological relationship between the two. Research the principles of twitch recruitment, muscle fatigue and the neuromuscular junction using the muscle relaxant, tubocurarine.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Intracellular Action Potentials

Deliver hyperpolarizing or depolarizing current injections to stimulate neurons through a microelectrode, then record the action potentials using a PowerLab. Attempt to identify sensory neurons or 'T cells' in the leech ganglion that are responsive to touch.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Mammalian Blood Pressure - Reflex Regulation

Discover how the reflex regulation of arterial blood pressure keeps the circulatory system in check.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Respiration - Nerve Effects

Stimulate the vagus and superior laryngeal nerves to elucidate how these affect respiration.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Earthworm Smooth Muscle

In this laboratory, students will investigate some of the responses of smooth muscle to neurotransmitters, temperature, and ions. The earthworm (Lumbricus spp.) gut provides a robust smooth muscle preparation that can be mounted in an organ bath and attached to a force transducer. This arrangement will enable students to measure contraction rate and force.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Frog Heart

Dissect a double-pithed frog and set up ECG analysis of a frog heart. Manipulate temperature, tension, and pharmacological parameters to observe their effect on the ECG. Learn about Starling's law of the heart, refractory periods and vagal escape.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Frog Skeletal Muscle

Investigate the physiological properties of skeletal muscle using the isolated amphibian gastrocnemius. Examine the properties of the single twitch, graded response and relationship between muscle length and tension as well as tetanus and muscle fatigue.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Gin Trap Closure Reflex

Set up and record EMG data from a pupal preparation. Administer tactile stimulation to sensilla and analyze signals from abdominal intersegmental muscles responsible for the gin trap closure reflex. Draw inferences about motor basis of animal behavior.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Insect Metabolism

Conduct indirect calorimetry experiments using a gas analyzer, flow head and a metabolic chamber encasing an insect. Calculate metabolic rate and respiratory quotient then draw inferences about the insect's diet. Examine the effects of an environmental variable (stress, food or temperature) on the metabolic rate.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Blood Pressure & Blood Flow

Learn about a variety of factors that can influence arterial blood pressure and revise fundamental aspects of circulatory physiology.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

+Mammalian Respiration - O2 & CO2 Effects

Review some of the fundamental aspects of respiratory physiology. Illustrate how changes in the partial pressures of oxygen (PO2) and carbon dioxide (PCO2), and pH can influence respiration.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

+Introduction to LabTutor

Get to know PowerLab hardware and LabTutor software. Discover the basic features of acquisition, analysis and reporting using LabTutor.

This lesson requires one of the PowerLabs below

Products required for this lesson

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