Teach Human Physiology with Lt
Lt guides physiology students though courses designed to reinforce introductory and advanced concepts in cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, digestion, and kidney and water balance.
The Physiology Accessory Kit doesn't include all the equipment that is required to teach the full range of labs below. Please visit the lab builder for a full equipment list.
Record spirometry signals and analyze these to derive dynamic respiratory paramenters, such as forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV1). Compare these with parameters derived from a simulated airway restriction exercise. Students also learn how to perform peak flow tests to assess pulmonary function.
Complete the same exercises as performed in a clinical assessment of ANS function. Examine the effects of nerve stimulation and other stimuli on skin potential. Investigate heart rate variability with normal and deep breathing. Observe the physiological effects of the Valsalva maneuver and of rapid postural change. Finally, perform pupillary exercises.
This module contains tutorials covering components of blood, blood cell formation, blood type, hemostasis, and breakdown of blood clots. In the lab, learners collect their own blood samples via sterile lancets to assess bleeding and coagulation time. They will also dilute a blood sample and use a hemocytometer to perform a platelet count and calculate the number of platelets per μL of blood.
This module contains a tutorial covering components of blood, blood cell formation, and blood type. In the lab, learners collect their own finger prick blood samples to complete a variety of tests. First, students will prepare a blood smear and identify different blood cells under a microscope. Next, students will determine the hemoglobin concentration of their blood sample using a spectrophotometer and perform a hematocrit test. Finally, students will determine their blood type using Eldon Cards.
Learn how to measure blood pressure with a stethoscope, blood pressure cuff and sphygmomanometer, then visualize changes during a measurement with a Cardio microphone. Assess peripheral circulation changes with a finger pulse transducer. Then examine the effect on blood pressure in the arm with changes in cuff location, cuff size, and arm position. Finally, ask how leg position affects leg blood pressure.
Learn how to measure body temperature at a variety of sites, how to avoid common errors in measurement, and how to interpret alterations in body temperature. Explore the differences between conductive and convective heat loss with a Thermistor Pod and temperature probe.
Students record breathing movements with a respiratory belt transducer to investigate various aspects of breathing, including the ability to hold the breath and the relation between breathing and heart rate.
Record an ECG, blood pressure, and respiratory movements from a healthy volunteer, and compare the recordings made when the volunteer is at rest, during exercise, and immediately after exercise. Students will examine which factors that control heart rate, blood flow and ventilation before, during and after exercise.
Record an ECG and the finger pulse from a healthy volunteer, and compare the recordings made when the volunteer is at rest and immediately after exercise. Students will examine the factors that control heart rate and blood flow to tissues before, during and after exercise.
Investigate the effects of the diving response on heart rate and peripheral circulation in humans during simulated dives as well as breath holding.
Students explore the electrical activity of the brain. They record electroencephalograms, and analyze: the effect of various interfering signals; the changes to alpha and beta waves with eyes open and shut; and the effects of mental and auditory activity on alpha and beta waves.
Students are introduced to the concept of energy expenditure and the methods used to analyze substrate metabolism. Students will measure FEO2 and FECO2 during three different levels of exercise, and will calculated the rate of metabolic energy consumption as a function of mechanical energy expenditure.
In this laboratory students record electro-oculograms (EOG’s) in the horizontal plane. They will examine different eye movements including: angular displacement, saccades, smooth tracking, gaze-holding and gaze-shifting, and nystagmus.
In this module students learn how to record and analyze data in Lt. A "Pre-Lab" lesson shows students what to expect in Lt labs and lets them explore the types of signals they might record. They also practice their data analysis skills prior to the lab, where they record and analyze their own pulse.
Students investigate how the gut and kidneys handle a carbohydrate load of either glucose or starch. They will eat or drink a variety of substances, then collect their urine and finger-prick blood samples to measure the glucose levels over time.
Measure and analyze the ECG and pulse, and discuss the relationship between them. Compare variations between the different leads of a 12-lead ECG and then perform an Einthoven triangle analysis (ECG example data provided).
Examine the direction of blood flow in the veins through a series of occlusion exercises. Practice palpation techniques on arm and leg arterial pulses. Record the radial pulse and discover arterial anastomoses and the connections in the blood supply of the hand.
Listen to heart sounds via a stethoscope by performing auscultation on a volunteer. Record and analyze an ECG in conjunction with a phonocardiogram (PCG) and pulse measurements.Investigate the timing of ECG events and peripheral pulse relative to heart sounds, to determine their relationships.
Estimate your own bladder capacity, update your knowledge of kidney anatomy and view an abdominal CT scan, and perform urine testing on “patient” urine samples, and urine observation.
Record and analyze spirometry signals to derive static respiratory parameters, such as lung volumes and capacities. Perform basic tests of pulmonary function and stimulate breathing with hyperinflated lungs.
Examine mechanical properties of the lung and chest wall by measuring pressures generated passively and by contraction of expiratory and inspiratory muscles.
Record EMG during voluntary muscle contractions and investigate how coactivation and contractile force changes with increasing demand. Measure the decline in your Grip force during a sustained contraction and examine muscle fatigue. Discover how visual feedback, verbal feedback, and rest, impact our ability to sustain muscle contractions.
Record an evoked EMG following electrical stimulation of the median or ulnar nerve at a variety of stimulating currents. Calculate latency and nerve conduction velocity.
Students explore the similarities and differences of reflexes and reactions. Students first examine simple reflexes, and then use the PowerLab to examine their reaction times to stimuli under different conditions.
Over a series of exercises students investigate mechanisms of sensory perception and discover techniques that send conflicting information to the central nervous system.
Students familiarize themselves with their senses and experiment with sensory illusions. Learn how the body detects and perceives different sensations including touch, sight, taste, and movement. These activities are suitable for students at all levels, and can be performed without a PowerLab.
Refresh your memory of the basic types of contractions. Record and measure muscular twitch responses to nerve stimulation and observe recruitment as stimulus strength increases. Test the effects of stimulus timing on muscle twitch summation and tetanus.
Refresh your knowledge of the major structures of the human brain and view MRI and CT scans. Test the knee and ankle jerk reflex responses with and without the Jendrassik maneuver. Students will also assess their pupillary and plantar reflexes.
Students will familiarize themselves with the Stroop Test. They will investigate the interference of conflicting messages, and examine the effects of the Stroop Test as an experimental stressor. This lab is suitable for students at all levels.
Learn how the kidneys handle fluid loads. See how urine output and urine specific gravity differ after consuming isosmotic, hyposmotic and hyperosmotic solutions.