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Lt LabStation

Human Physiology

Lt LabStation guides physiology students through courses designed to reinforce introductory and advanced concepts in cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, neurophysiology, muscle physiology, digestion, and kidney and water balance.

Pre Lab Prep

Pre-Lab Prep

This lesson is designed to be used before the Lab. Questions have been set to allow multiple attempts for formative assessment. However, it is very simple to change the setting so that students may make only one attempt and their answers can be graded.
Independent learning (30 minutes)

Lab

Lab

This lesson includes a Challenge page to get the learners thinking about the main point of each exercise. Each exercise has an activity and an analysis page with questions to check their understanding. These check your understanding questions allow single attempts.
Group work (2 hours)

Collection

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Lessons

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Airflow

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In this lab, learners record and analyze spirometry signals to derive dynamic respiratory parameters, such as forced expired volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ). They compare these with parameters derived from a simulated airway restriction exercise. They also learn how to perform peak flow tests to assess pulmonary function.

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Autonomic Nervous System

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In this lab, learners complete the same exercises as performed in a clinical assessment of ANS function. They examine the effects of nerve stimulation and other stimuli on skin potential, investigate heart rate variability with normal and deep breathing, and observe the physiological effects of the Valsalva maneuver and of rapid postural change. Finally, the learners perform pupillary exercises.

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Blood Pressure

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In this lab, learners measure blood pressure with a stethoscope, blood pressure cuff and sphygmomanometer, then visualize changes during a measurement with a Cardio microphone. They assess peripheral circulation changes with a finger pulse transducer and examine the effect on blood pressure in the arm with changes in cuff location, cuff size, and arm position. Finally, they examine how leg position affects leg blood pressure.

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Body Temperature

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In this lab, learners measure body temperature at a variety of sites, and learn how to avoid common errors in measurement, and how to interpret alterations in body temperature. They also explore the differences between conductive and convective heat loss with a Thermistor Pod and temperature probe.

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Breathing

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In this lab, learners will record breathing movements with a respiratory belt fastened around the abdomen or thorax. They will investigate various aspects of breathing, including the ability to hold the breath and the relationship between breathing and heart rate.

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Cardiorespiratory Effects of Exercise

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In this lab, learners will record the electrocardiogram (ECG), blood pressure, and respiratory movements from a healthy volunteer. They will compare the recordings made when a volunteer is at rest, during exercise, and immediately after exercise .

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Cardiovascular Effects of Exercise

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In this lab, learners will record the electrocardiogram (ECG) and the finger pulse from a healthy volunteer, and compare the recordings made when the volunteer is at rest and immediately after exercise.

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Diving Response

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In this lab, learners investigate the effects of the diving response on heart rate and peripheral circulation in humans during simulated dives as well as breath holding.

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Electroencephalography (EEG)

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In this lab, learners explore the electrical activity of the brain. They record electroencephalograms, and analyze: the effect of various interfering signals; the changes to alpha and beta waves with eyes open and shut; and the effects of mental and auditory activity on alpha and beta waves.

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Electrooculography (EOG)

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In this lab, learners record electro-oculograms (EOGs) in the horizontal plane. They will examine different eye movements including: angular displacement, saccades, smooth tracking, gaze-holding and gaze-shifting, and nystagmus.

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Energy Expenditure and Exercise

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In this lab, learners will become familiar with the concept of energy expenditure and the methods used to analyze substrate metabolism. They will measure the FEO2, FECO2, and RER during steady-state exercise, as well as ventilatory changes and changes in mechanical efficiency.

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Glucose Absorption

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In this lab, learners distinguish between the handling of simple and complex carbohydrates by studying how the gut handles a carbohydrate load. They measure blood glucose using a glucolet and glucometer and compare results from five protocols, with learners taking seven finger-prick blood samples and five urine samples to measure glucose levels.

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Heart and ECG

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In this lab, learners measure and analyze the ECG and pulse, and discuss the relationship between them. They compare variations between the different leads of a 12-lead ECG and then perform an Einthoven triangle analysis (ECG example data provided). Note: Effects of exercise on ECG and pulse exercise has moved to the Cardiovascular Effects of Exercise lab.

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Heart and Peripheral Circulation

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In this lab, learners examine the direction of blood flow in the veins through a series of occlusion exercises. They practice palpation techniques on arm and leg arterial pulses, and record the radial pulse and discover arterial anastomoses and the connections in the blood supply of the hand.

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Heart Sounds

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In this lab, learners listen to heart sounds via a stethoscope by performing auscultation on a volunteer. They record and analyze an ECG in conjunction with a phonocardiogram (PCG) and pulse measurements. They also investigate the timing of ECG events and peripheral pulse relative to heart sounds, to determine their relationships.

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Kidney and Urine

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In this lab, learners estimate their own bladder capacity, update their knowledge of kidney anatomy, view an abdominal CT scan, and perform urine testing on “patient” urine samples, and urine observation.

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Lung Volumes

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In this lab, learners record and analyze spirometry signals to derive static respiratory parameters, such as lung volumes and capacities. They also perform basic tests of pulmonary function and stimulate breathing with hyperinflated lungs.

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Mechanics of Ventilation

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In this lab, learners will examine mechanical properties of the lung and chest wall by measuring pressures generated passively and by contraction of expiratory and inspiratory muscles. They are also introduced to spirometry as a unique for determining lung volume.

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Muscle and EMG

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In this lab, learners record EMG during voluntary muscle contractions and investigate how coactivation and contractile force changes with increasing demand. They measure the decline in their grip force during a sustained contraction and examine muscle fatigue. They also discover how visual feedback, verbal feedback, and rest impact their ability to sustain muscle contractions.

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Peripheral Nerve Function

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In this lab, learners record an evoked EMG following electrical stimulation of the median or ulnar nerve at a variety of stimulating currents. They then calculate latency and nerve conduction velocity.

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Reflexes and Reaction Times

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In this lab, learners explore the similarities and differences of reflexes and reactions. They first examine simple reflexes, and then use the PowerLab to examine their reaction times to stimuli under different conditions.

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Sensory Illusions

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In this lab, learners complete a series of exercises to investigate mechanisms of sensory perception and discover techniques that send conflicting information to the central nervous system.

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Sensory Physiology

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In this lab, learners will familiarize themselves with their senses and observe some sensory illusions. These activities are suitable for learners at all levels, and can be performed without a PowerLab.

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Skeletal Muscle Function

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In this lab, learners refresh their memory of the basic types of contractions, then record and measure muscular twitch responses to nerve stimulation and observe recruitment as stimulus strength increases. They also test the effects of stimulus timing on muscle twitch summation and tetanus.

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Spinal Reflexes

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In this lab, learners investigate some simple and complex reflexes used clinically in neurological examination.

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Stroop Test

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In this lab, learners will familiarize themselves with the Stroop test. They will investigate the interference of conflicting messages, and examine at the effects of the Stroop test as an experimental stressor.

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Water Balance

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In this lab, learners will drink a variety of solutions (distilled water, or an isosmotic NaCl solution, or an hyperosmotic glucose solution), or drink nothing during the lab (as a control). They then collect and measure the volume and specific gravity of their urines over 2 hours. Example data is provided in the Instructor’s material.

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