Can I connect a thermistor probe (27k? at 25 °C) to a Bridge Amp?

It is possible, but it will require some electronic understanding and soldering.
When connecting a thermistor probe to an ADInstruments Bridge Amp an offset will be created due to the fact that the Bridge Amp requires a full bridge circuit on its input. To remedy this, the compensating resistors need to be placed in the connector to complete the full bridge network.
A matching resistance to the thermistor resistance is required in one of the arms of the bridge, so place a matching resistor between pins 3 and 4. In the  other two balancing arms you can also place a resistor with the thermistor resistance (between pins 2 and 4 and pins 1 and 2). A 1.2 M? resistor is placed between pins 5 and 8 to set the excitation to 2 V. This is described in the Bridge Amp manual, page 89 "Setting up Excitation voltage". 

If you are measuring outside the linear range, LabChart's Multipoint Calibration Add-on might be of interest for you. It can be installed from LabChart's Feature Manager.