What method should be used to insert Mikro-Tip pressure catheters into the left ventricle in working hearts?

There are a number of ways to do this. The goal is to position the catheter into the left ventricle without causing any adverse affects on the heart function. Some published methods include:

  1. Inserting the catheter down through the aorta into the left ventricle.
  2. Inserting it through the left atrium and into the ventricle via one of the pulmonary veins (e.g., Lü et al., J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 49, 1443-9, 2007).
  3. Via an apical stab. E.g., a cannula can be inserted into the left ventricle through the apex of the heart. The cannula is then connected to the catheter via a fluid-filled adapter (e.g., Assum et al., Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 283,  H949–H957, 2002).

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