What are the most suitable methods for investigating drug effects on cardiac output?

If the effects of the drug are short-lived due to the body's normal compensatory mechanisms, it is more suitable to investigate cardiac output using the Working Heart preparation (possibly along with Transonic Flow Probes ). The isolated working heart model enables more efficient investigation of a drug's direct effects on the heart because the compensatory effects from other regions in the body have been removed.

If the drug has long terms effects, the Cardiac Output Pod and thermodilution method can be used in vivo. The Cardiac Output Module for the LabChart Software can then be used to calculate cardiac output (in small animals).

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